11 June 2023

What is colonialism? – Meaning of historical colonialism

By Donald

Colonialism is one of the events that has marked humanity the most, one that has left numerous positive contributions, starting with interoceanic trade, which is the beginning of what we now know as globalization. Of course, it has also implied certain negative aspects, especially those destined to the disappearance of some tribes and, therefore, there is a before and after in the history of the world.

Its maximum exponent is the conqueror, an unscrupulous man capable of doing anything for getting wealth. Colonialism also implied the appearance of piracy, which destroyed ports and lives in its path. Undoubtedly, the greatest contribution was miscegenation, where diverse cultures mixed, this added to the territory expansionwhich ended up forming a kind of land boundaries which concluded in the creation of new countries.

What is the definition and concept of colonialism?

Colonialism is a doctrine and a form of relationship of political, economic, social, cultural and religious domination. There we see how a foreign state called metropolis, conquers a nation foreign to his own and exploits it totally and utterly. We know this territory as “cologne“.

In general, the metropolis imposes the form of direct and forceful domination over the invaded country, through conquest (military occupation) and imposition of authorities. It has as characteristics usurpation and appropriation from the earth.

So we see how They are taking the wealth and resources, subjecting the native population, taking away their rights and imposing their colonial interests in all aspects of life. The metropolises, when expanding, become empires like the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French and British.

What is colonialism in Asia?

In Asia, the movement consisted of a process where the colonial powers had as their goal look for raw materials for your growing industry. As well as new markets destined to place their workforce and depopulated territories, becoming great destinations for alternative tourism today.

For that reason, the end was encourage European migration towards these areas. According to Quijano, the Asian territories had forged nations and a strong political organization. In this way, they made it more difficult for colonial powers to establish themselves.

Coloniality in Asia was quite bloody, with several clashes between European forces and these countries, highlighting the wars in India and China, where, at the time, managed to subdue them. The Empire of France and the British Empire were the ones that took the most territories on this continent.

The Tsarist Empire of Russia and the nascent Empire of Japan stand out in the expansionist policy of Asia, dominating the territories of their neighbors. Russia expanded and conquered the lands of Siberia, Central Asia, and the Caucasus, while Japan dominated the islands of Taiwan, the Kuril Islands, the Korean Peninsula, and even large portions of China.

Areas closer to Europe such as the Middle East and North Africa were also the scene of colonialist policy. The goal was to discover mineral wealth and river resources in order to meet the demand of the European population. In these places and even throughout Africa, slavery was consolidated as the most profitable enterprise in the process of European colonialism. Their countries begin a race for the control of more territories on the African continent that had its share with the Berlin Conference between 1884-1885.

In Africa we saw the incorporation of other colonial powers with Belgium, Italy and Germany, who managed to have territories in the Congo, Libya and Guinea. However, they continued to dominate France and the United Kingdom, as in Asia.

What is colonialism in Mexico?

The history of Mexico before the arrival of the Spanish (colonizing power of this country) was dominated by two great civilizations: aztecs and mayans. Its great center of power and most populous city was Tenochtitlán.

With the arrival of Hernán Cortés on the Mexican coast and the subsequent wars of conquest, this colonization process began. In the end, he ended up with the destruction and enslavement of the aztec nation.

In addition, the establishment was evident, in most cases by forceof new political and religious institutions. As well as the cultural, economic and social ones in accordance with the values ​​of the conquerors.

What is colonialism in Latin America?

It is a historical process that begins in the year 1492 with the arrival of Christopher Columbus. The greatest characteristic of him was the appropriation of a vast territory and the consolidation of slavery as universal business. Likewise, we highlight the expansion of Christianity in Latin America and the beginning of world trade.

The first colonial powers to be on the continent were Spain and Portugal, who managed to obtain the largest amount of territory and resources. Then the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, Russia, Denmark and Italy conquered this continent.

What is European colonialism?

According to Quijano, it is also known as the process of global expansionism by European culture and which meant the consolidation of their colonial empires. Its characteristics are the westernization of most of the world. In addition, the spread of the Christian religion in places as far away as Australia, Latin America, Africa and Asia.

It had its first phase with the conquest and settlement of the Europeans, especially Spain and Portugal, in the territories of America, the Caribbean and North and West Africa. Then the United Kingdom, France and the Netherlands are added.

In the second phase, the Europeans (especially France and the United Kingdom) take control of Asia by forming companies and factories that traded the resources exploited from these areas to Europe.

The third phase is the division of the African continent. There, we will be able to notice that, in addition, of the mentioned European powersBelgium, Germany and Italy configured the last wave of expansion.

What are the causes of colonialism?

It responds to the interests of the conquering colonial powers, which range from the economic, political and geopolitical to the cultural. Economically, the metropolis required resources and territories in order to continue its growth with respect to other powers.

In addition, it was necessary to hire cheap labor to further develop the industrialization process that had its high point with the promotion of slavery. Politically and geopolitically, being prevented from win over your neighborsThey saw the need to search for new territories with weaker nations that soon dominated under their control.

Colonial powers desire world domination so they can expand their culture and have greater geopolitical control over their European rivals. Culturally, the metropolises considered themselves civilized nations, compared to the backward and primitive cultures who inhabited the colonies, justifying the expansion with the imposition of their lifestyles and religion.

What are the types of colonialism?

We determine them by the degree of independence that the colonizing metropolis allows the dominated colony. Is direct colonialism when the colonizing empire empowers the colony to have its own government, and reserves foreign policy under its control.

From the sociocultural and economic point of view, they have absolute control of the territories under their power, since the native population must obey what the colonial empire imposes. For his part, he indirect colonialism It is when the colonies have political freedom and choose their rulers. In addition, they control security and justice, but the economy is managed by the metropolis.

What is internal colonialism?

Internal colonialism is a social process whereby a dominant nation or culture grants privileges to its own majority fellow citizens. These can be legal, economic and social and are detrimental to members of the minority culture or nation. Therefore, it seems to us that is native to the region exploited by the metropolis.

This term is also used to define the situation of native peoples (South American aborigines, gypsies, Kurds…), since they exploit their land and are treated with racial and ethnic differentiation by the dominant culture.

What is modern colonialism?

Modern colonialism originated after the world wars and the independence process of the former colonies. With the new world orderwe see the creation of more countries, which opened the debate regarding whether the independence of those nascent nations was real or not.

Modern colonialism or neocolonialism consists of political, cultural or religious control, which a metropolis exercises over a former colony. Likewise, it highlights the domain in the linguistic, technological and economic field in that territory that obtained its independence.

A policy that the metropolis had with its colonies was that all the profits from the exploitation of its natural resources and wealth were concentrated in the colonizing nationfor which it was prohibited that the export and import of the same be given to other metropolises.

Starting in 1950, the former British and French colonies were in a situation of economic dependence with their ex-metropolises. Both France and the UK can continue to exploit the wealth and resources of their former colonies with just a few controls.

Examples of colonialism

Today there are still nations that have not gained their independence and without a doubt they are outstanding examples of colonialism. The most important are:

  • greenland: Considered the largest island in the world and since 1261 a dependency of the Kingdom of Norway and from 1814 it became depend on the Kingdom of Denmarkwhich exercised until 1978 full control of its affairs.

As of 2009 it has self-government and leaving the Greenlanders the issues related to foreign policy, security, financial policy.

  • Gibraltar: It is a small territory located in the south of Spain that remains under UK control and that the Iberian nation claims. Taken in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession and where at the end of it, both crowns signed the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713.

It should be noted that as of 2006 it has a certain degree of self-government, but the British government exercises control on defense, international relations and economics.

  • United States Virgin Islands: It is an archipelago located in the Caribbean, it was sold by denmark to the United States of America in 1917. In 1927 its inhabitants are American citizens, but they cannot vote in the presidential elections of the United States, they have a limited level of self-government.
  • new caledonia: It is an archipelago and a group of islands located in Oceania, become a possession of France in 1853 and from 1864 to 1904 it served as a penal colony.

From 1946 they obtain self-government, but the French Republic takes control of foreign relations. As well as the field related to justice, defense, security and economy.