27 April 2023

What is the Bucareli Treaty? – History and agreements of the Bucareli Agreement

By Donald

There are some treaties and negotiations between the United States and Mexico that achieved peace and the development of better diplomatic relations. One of these agreements was the treaty of Bucareli, in which the destination of Mexican oil was arranged. So, in this article, it is explained what this pact is, its function and the validity that it had.

What is the Bucareli treaty?

In the history between Mexico and the United States of America, political and social conflicts occur frequently. This is due to the geographical proximity and differences of thought between the leaders of said states. However, they also reached several agreements that allowed them to establish peace and friendship relations between the two nations. One of the most important treaties that was achieved in this region occurred some time after the constitution of Mexico was established with the restored republic and is known as the Bucareli treaty.

The Bucareli agreement represents one of the most relevant historical pacts in relations between the United States and Mexico. It is a document that was signed in 1923 as part of a set of negotiations that the presidents of both countries developed. At that time, American citizens were protesting for your rights and for damages to American assets on Mexican soil. Well, they wanted recognition from the State in the face of the devastation caused by the Mexican revolution that took place between 1910 and 1921.

What is established in the Bucareli Treaty?

The United States of America and Mexico established the Bucareli Treaty on August 13, 1923, where certain agreements were established. In the first place, the Mexican State had to pay bonds to the owners of the US agricultural properties that were confiscated. With the exception of those lands greater in extension than 1755 hectares, since these properties ofThey had to be ‘bought’ or paid for immediately and in cash.

In the same way, the Bucareli Treaty established the creation of a commission, in order to review any unattended claim since 1868. In addition, claims for attacks on US properties during the Mexican revolution would have a different review. Finally, article 27 of the Mexican constitution was eliminated, which allowed Americans trade and exploit oil of the lands they acquired.

By agreeing to the conditions, the United States recognized President Álvaro Obregón. The treaty was signed in a building belonging to the federal government in the street of Bucareli number 85. However, this pact did not have legal validity, since Congress did not approve its signature. Therefore, the provisions were not fully complied with, which dictated that the total payment should be completed in two years.

What were the causes of the Bucareli treaty?

The origin of the Bucareli treaty is found in the political weakness of the government of the president of Mexico, Álvaro Obregón. In this sense, the United States did not recognize their authority acquired after the Mexican revolution, since they presented leftist and nationalist tendencies. So, the USA demanded that some articles of the constitution that harmed American citizens and their property in Mexico. While Obregón requested recognition so as not to have military disputes, in addition to having more authority before his political rivals.

After the Mexican revolution, the cities of Mexico were a mess, so Álvaro Obregón wanted foreign investment to rebuild the country. So, the American president conditioned the recognition of the president and the investment to the elimination of certain laws. In this sense, the Mexican constitution stated that the water, land and oil underground belonged to the nation. So, the Americans sought respect and recognition of their properties in Mexican territory with this type of treaty.

What is the objective of the Bucareli treaty?

The main objective of the Mexican government was get recognition from United States. Well, in the eyes of the international community, it was shameful that a president did not have such support. Therefore, the main function of the negotiations was for the United States to admit that Obregón had power in Mexican territory.

However, the United States was not going to give up such recognition without getting anything in return, since they also had their objectives. So, in the talks to sign some kind of treaty, they began to demand certain concessions. Therefore, the function of the pact was to obtain the best benefits for both countries.

The US government wanted payment of a Mexican debt that was left pending when another president decided to stop paying. They also wanted respect for the control of agricultural property and oil in the hands of Americans on Mexican lands.

It must be remembered that by this time there was still no organization like NATO that regulated trade and oil properties. Therefore, the two countries had to reach a type of treaty so as not to enter into an armed conflict. In this way, the United States put three conditions for the agreement to be signed.

  • The Mexican government should clarify in the constitution that the oil and agricultural properties of foreigners in the country would be private and not state owned. This throughout the territory, including places like Xico and Guanajuato.
  • Mexico had to pay as compensation a sum of money for damage to foreign property in the Mexican revolution.
  • Mexico had to resume payments on its external debt.

What are the characteristics of the Bucareli treaty?

The Bucareli Treaty is a pact that represents a search for peace and friendship between the governments of the United States and Mexico, which is why it has some special characteristics. However, some people considered the closure of the negotiations as a shameful fact. Which, harmed the Mexican territory, due to the number of Americans who lived in that area.

  • He sought peace between the two countries through concessions from the presidents involved.
  • The treaty had unofficial commitments in favor of Álvaro Obregón.
  • The Mexican congress denied the signing of the treaty by vote.
  • It represented the delivery of Mexican land and oil to US citizens.
  • Obregón’s successor, Plutarco Calles, decided not abide by the pact and reinstate decree 27 of the constitution.
  • This agreement provoked an uprising in arms of the people, since Adolfo de la Huerta, Secretary of the Treasury of Mexico, expressed that the agreement was shameful, since the country was humiliated in favor of the USA. This character left his position and began a civil war called the Delahuertista rebellion in 1923.