What is the Crimean War? – Years of conflict, causes and consequences
The Crimean War refers to a war conflict that took place in the peninsula of crimea, located in the Black Sea. This has occurred on two separate occasions in modern history: the first between the years 1853 and 1856, and the second in 2014. Both disputes had a significant impact on politics and international relations, as well as on societies and economies. of the regions involved.
What was the Crimean War about?
It was an armed conflict was fought in the years 1853 and 1856, between the Ottoman Empire, supported by the United Kingdom and the nation of France, against the Russian kingdom. The dispute was fought in the Crimean peninsula, in the south of Ukraine and in other places of the Black Sea and the Caucasus.
The battle began after the Russian government refused to accept the demands of the Ottoman Empire, regarding the rights of Orthodox Christians. In response, the Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia in October 1853, and the British Empire and France joined the fray in support of the Ottoman Empire in the same month. Several of these moments in history were immortalized by Roger Fenton, a war photographer from Britain.
Throughout the years the dispute continued, and it was The Treaty of Paris that ended the war in 1856, which established that Crimea would return to Russia but that the Black Sea would be neutral and demilitarized. It was also agreed that the Danube would be recognized as an international river, leading to the independence of Moldavia and Wallachia, which were under Ottoman control.
Next, we will explain what were the most important events of the Crimean War through the years:
Crimean War – 1853
- In July 1853, a Russian squadron attacked and destroyed an Ottoman flotilla in the Black Seawhich led to the declaration of war by the Ottoman Empire against Russia.
- Great Britain and France joined the dispute in October 1853thus creating an allied coalition against Russia.
- In November 1853, Russian forces besieged the Turkish city of Silistra.
Crimean War -1854
- In March 1854 French and British troops landed on the Crimean peninsulabeginning the invasion in Russia.
- In September 1854, the joint army attacked and captured the Russian fortress of Malakovwhich defended the port of Sevastopol, which allowed the allied forces to get closer to the citizenry.
- Despite the efforts of the Russians to maintain control of Sevastopol, the alliance managed to capture the city in September 1855.
Crimean War – 1856
- In March 1856 the Treaty of Paris was signedwhich ended the dispute.
- The agreement established that Crimea would return to Russia, but that the Black Sea would be neutral and demilitarized.
- It was agreed that the Danube would be recognized as a international river.
Crimean War – 2014
In 2014 there was a conflict between Ukraine and Russia, in the Crimean peninsula, which led to the annexation of Crimea by Russia. This conflict is known as the 2014 Crimean Crisis, but it is not considered a war as such.
In February 2014, after months of protests in Ukraine against pro-Russian President Viktor Yanukovych, he fled the country after being ousted. In response, Russia sent troops to the Crimean peninsula where he had a naval base in the city of Sevastopol. Russian soldiers took control of the territory without significant resistance and a referendum was held to decide if and when the peninsula would join Russia.
The annexation of Crimea was not recognized by the international community, including the European Union and the United States, which imposed sanctions on Russia in response to its action. The conflict also caused tensions between the nations, with hostilities continuing in eastern Ukraine where pro-Russian separatists tried to take control of the area.
Although the 2014 Crimean Crisis was not a war in the traditional sense, still had a significant impact in the region, which led to an escalation of tensions between Russia and Western countries that still persists today.
What were the causes of the Crimean War? – Why did it start?
The reasons for the battle from 1853 to 1856 They are diverse and complex., and were related to political, military and economic factors. Some most important causes why the war started were:
- territorial disputes: Crimea was a territory that both Russia and the Ottoman Empire claimed. Also, Russia was looking to expand towards the caucasus and other territories of southern Europe.
- religious conflicts: Russia and the Ottoman Empire were in disagreement over christian rights Orthodox who lived in the Empire. Russia wanted to protect the Christians and felt at a disadvantage compared to the Catholics and Muslims in the kingdom.
- Economic interests: Russia and Great Britain vied for control of trade in the Black Sea and in the eastern Mediterranean. Britain wanted to protect the eastern trade routes, while Russia wanted to expand its trade.
- international alliances: France, Great Britain and the Ottoman Empire they formed a union against russiabecause its influence and power in Europe was expanding.
The 2014 Crimean crisis resulted from a combination of political, ethnic, historical, and strategic factors. Below are some of the main causes of the Crimean crisis:
- The fall of pro-Russian President Viktor YanukovychWell, in February 2014 he was sacked by the Ukrainian parliament after months of protests against his government and its decision to leave the association treaty with the European Union. Yanukovych fled to russia and settled in Moscow.
- The Russian-speaking population of Crimea: The Crimean Peninsula has a large number of Russian-speaking inhabitants and a strong community presence at large, with historical and cultural ties to Russia. Many consider Crimea as a Russian territory.
- The Russian naval base in Sevastopol: Russia has a valuable military port in Sevastopol, on the Crimean peninsula, which is of great strategic importance for the defense of its interests in the Black Sea.
- NATO’s growing influence in Eastern Europe: Russia sees NATO expansion into Eastern Europe as a threat to their national security and a direct provocation.
- Ethnic and political tensions in Ukraine: The Crimean crisis also reflected pressures in Ukraine, with a clear division between those who supported further integration with Europe and those who preferred to maintain close ties with Russia.
What are the characteristics of the Crimea?
Although both disputes share the name ‘Crimean War’, there are notable divergences in terms of its characteristics due to the different historical contexts and the circumstances that led to each of them. Below are some of the features most relevant of each of the Crimean Wars:
- Crimean War from 1853 to 1856
- The fight It was a fight between the russian nation and an alliance of European powers led by Great Britain, France and the Ottoman Empire.
- The war was fought on the Crimean peninsula, but also there were clashes elsewhere in Europe and Asia.
- It was a costly conflict and bloody, with a high number of casualties.
- Innovative military technologies and strategies were used, such as recoil-loading artillery and the use of trenches.
- War is considered a milestone in history of the infirmary, thanks to the work of Florence Nightingale and other medical volunteers who treated the wounded.
- 2014 Crimean War
- It was an invasion and annexation by Russia of the Crimean peninsula, which before it belonged to Ukraine.
- The fight it was a confrontation between both nationsalthough it also involved other countries in the international community.
- The war was short and characterized by an intense military presence, from both Russia and Ukraine.
- The conflict was largely fought politically and diplomatically, with economic and political sanctions international against Russia.
- Had a significant impact on world relations and regional security, leaving a lasting imprint on global politics.
Who participated in the Crimean War?
each one had different collaborators and alliances. The countries and military forces involved in each conflict are detailed below:
- Crimean War from 1853 to 1856
- On the one hand, the Russian Empire led by Tsar Nicholas I, who was supported by some Serbian and Montenegrin forces.
- On the other hand, an alliance of European powers led by Britain, France and the Ottoman Empire, which was supported by the monarchy of Sardinia and the second Austrian reign.
- 2014 Crimean War
- Russia, which invaded and annexed the Crimean peninsula.
- The Ukrainian military forces, which opposed the invasion and they fought to regain control of the region.
- There was significant international involvement in the conflict, with countries like the United States and the European Union taking measures to condemn the invasion and apply economic and political sanctions against Russia.
In both conflicts, the participation of different powers and military forces has been a key factor in the development and the outcome of the dispute.
What were the consequences of the Crimean War?
The repercussions of all battles are significantand the consequences of each conflict are detailed below:
- Crimean War from 1853 to 1856
- the ottoman empire he was saved from defeat and its territorial integrity was maintained.
- Russia lost some of its territories and its influence in the region weakened.
- The balance of power in Europe changed, with Great Britain emerging as the leading power.
- There was a rise in nationalism and in the desire of nations to have their own autonomy.
- 2014 Crimean War
- Russia annexed the Crimean peninsula, a fact condemned by the international community and led to the imposition of economic and political sanctions against Russia.
- The contest exacerbated tensions between the two nations. This gave rise to an armed conflict that continues to this day.
- The annexation of Crimea by Russia led to the expulsion of the majority of the Crimean Tatar population, which has led to a systematic rape of the human rights of this ethnic minority.
- The 2014 Crimean War too has had an impact on global relationscausing an increase in tension between Russia and Western countries, as well as a weakening of the world system based on respect for international law and the territorial sovereignty of states.