5 May 2023

What is the generation of 36? – Discover the characteristics of the generation of 36

By Donald

In literature, some important generations stand out for the development of the writings that are created today. However, when mentioning the most famous generations, the ones from the years 27 and 98 always stand out. So, in this article we explain what is the generation of ’36 and its influence on literature. In the same way, its characteristics and the maximum exponents of this group are mentioned.

What was the generation of ’36?

The world of literature is made up of a large number of literary movements such as the Enlightenment, Surrealism and Ultraism. Each movement has its own characteristics, as well as outstanding novel and poetry writers. However, there is generations of authors who shine more than others and who acquire greater fame. Such is the case of the generation of 27, that of 98 and the generation of 36.

The generation of 36 is known as a group of authors, artists, playwrights and members of the highest literary circles who stood out in the field of literature. This group of people came together to form a literary movement based on a shared ideology by members and a similar writing style. It did not achieve as much fame as its peers from the generation of ’27, nor that of ’98, but they did manage to capture and show the reality of the time.

This group also receives the title of the First Postwar Generation or promotion of 1936, since the members joined during the events of the Civil War in Spain. Therefore, they were authors who were in the vanguard and wanted to expose the reality of the country in his works.

The generation of 36 began to come together between the years 1936 and 1941, so many of the members were born between 1905 and 1920. With the civil war in full swing, literature focused on showing the division that existed in the society of Spain. In the same way, in the works the censorship imposed by the regime and the feelings of the writers stand out, as well as those of the people.

What are the characteristics of the generation of 36?

The generation of ’36 managed to bring together a good number of authors because most of them shared characteristics in their way of writing. In this sense, the ideas of these authors sought to place realism at the forefront, as opposed to surrealism. Which, was quite a popular ideology on the continent, since other movements had the same goal, for example, Russian formalism.

Despite the union that was formed to create the literary movement, the generation of ’36 also had internal conflicts. In this sense, with the course of the Spanish civil war and the Franco’s seizure of powerthe division began to be noticed, since some authors supported it, while others rejected it.

  • War poetry: At this time the poets began to write verses related to war conflicts.
  • The authors made political propaganda: The division between the sides was noticeable in the works, which created two trends in poetry.
  • Rooted poetry: Created by authors close to the Franco regime, loyal people who sought to attract more people. They talked about patriotism, love, nationalism and family.
  • Uprooted Poetry: The anti-Franco poets They led this type of verses, where they reflected the pain and anguish of the people. They also took the opportunity to criticize the dictatorship.
  • The narrative, the new form of literature: The generation of 36 was characterized by creating works where a story is told. So it differed from the generation of 27 where poetic verses were more common.
  • We sought to humanize the stories through strong feelings.
  • He stayed from the avant-garde of surrealism to try the realism of society, that is, showing the conflicts that the people experienced thanks to the war.
  • The generation of ’36 wrote committed literature, since both sides were loyal to their beliefs.
  • Different language: The authors preferred to write their works with a direct language, simpler and rougher, like the one used in the civil war in Spain. So, it represents a change to formal dialect used in works prior to date.
  • Concern for society: Much of the works reflect the feelings of the writers about the hardships suffered by the people.

What authors make up the generation of ’36?

In the generation of ’36, a large number of writers came together to expose the reality of the Spanish people during armed conflicts. The group included not only novelists, but also prominent poets and playwrights.

Federico García Lorca stands out as the most influential poet in this generation, since he was very popular with the public. He is considered the greatest exponent of poetry in Spain during the 20th century and one of the best playwrights at the same time. Federico Garcia Lorca He died at the beginning of the civil war, as he was a victim of the famous rebel side. He had a certain influence on the generation of ’36, but he stood out in that of ’27.

Miguel Hernández was the figure that connected the generation of ’27 with that of ’36, since he participated in both. Two tendencies can be appreciated in his literature, the first one receives Neruda’s influence. However, the second is marked by war, so these texts count for this literary movement.

Raphael Alberti also participated in both generations, receives consideration as one of the best literary in the Silver Age of literature. He also had instructions from Neruda to develop himself as a poet. He exile of Rafael Alberti He stands out in his biography for his anti-fascist poems.

Leopoldo Panero as a poet is one of the exponents of the Generation of ’36, he used to write about the family and religion. While Luis Rosales showed his rooted poetry openly, exposing his nationalism and affinities with the Franco regime.