What is the Holy Alliance? – Learn the objectives of the Holy Alliance
The Holy Alliance is a treaty that was made on September 26, 1815 between Alexander I of Russia, Frederick William III of Prussia and Francis I of Austria. Where Alexander I proposed a alliance to contain the expansion of liberalism and trying to restore civilization to previous stages of the French Revolution.
This celebration took place in Paris after the Battle of Waterloo, after the resignation of Napoleon Bonaparte, when the troops of the seventh coalition already occupied the French capital. Which caused concern for monarchical countries absolutists of the time. Together with the Vatican, they established a strategic alliance to contain the revolutionary uproar. That it was caused as a consequence of the French Revolution. If you want to know everything about the Holy Alliance in Meaning What It Is we will teach you everything you need to know.
Concept and meaning of Holy Alliance
The Holy Alliance was a political and religious alliance formed by the monarchies of Russia, Austria, and Prussia. His intention was to preserve peace and stability in Europe after the Napoleonic Wars. Its name comes from beginning of the Christian faith that promote justice and charity. Its name comes from Christian values, taking into account that the member countries were monarchical.
From the religious point of view, this treaty was intended to protect the Christian religion and all traditional values and that as the leader of the time, Pope Pius VII was one of the promoters of the alliance At the political level, the monarchies involved compromised. Its objective was to intervene in any attempt at revolution that could be generated in a European country.
The Alliance would be a symbol of the conservatives in Europe they were against revolutions, also in defense, the preservation of the monarchy and the Christian religion. This need arises after the criticisms made by the nationalist and liberal movements.
What is the European Holy Alliance?
The treaty between the three monarchs who promised to intervene militarily is known as the European Holy Alliance. With the objective of end the revolutionary wave that he tried to question the principles of absolutism and, therefore, the legitimacy of the monarchy.
In the years 1815, the Holy Alliance signs an agreement with Great Britain, to later form an alliance of 4 countries. In this regard, the UK joins Russia, Austria and Prussia in defense of the balance of powers agreed at the Congress of Vienna.
Years later, in 1817 Spain joined the coalition at the hands of King Ferdinand VII and in 1818 France would also join the Holy Alliance. Since then, congresses have been promoted to coordinate military interventions. Mainly in those territories that were considered absolutist. As long as they represented a danger to the powers established in the Congress of Vienna.
What were the objectives of the Holy Alliance?
The main objectives of the Holy Alliance were the following:
- Maintain the balance between the powers of Europe. The precedent was the Congress of Vienna and the alliance is made with these foundations already previously agreed.
- Defend the absolutist monarchy as the only form of government.
- Stop the advance of liberalism and secularism that spread throughout Europe after what happened in the French Revolution.
- Establish the union between the three monarchies. Among the allies they pledged to provide aid, assistance and relief for the protection of peace, justice and religion.
- Create security systems to stop any attempt at revolution that tried to modify the agreements established at the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
Who were the members of the Holy Alliance? – Countries
The Holy Alliance was made up of three European states that had great political and military power. The Russian Empire was one of the members of those who make it up, led by the Romanov dynasty and that it had the capital located in the city of Moscow. Being a monarchy, the Czar had at that time the legislative and executive powers.
Another of the members was the kingdom of Prussia, which was governed by the Hohenzollern dynasty. They were characterized as an absolutist state and its capital was the city of Berlin. Being part of the German confederation, they maintained the German states as a loose federation.
To finish integrating the Holy Alliance, the Austrian empire through the Habsburg dynasty joins the objectives of the political pact. At that time Austria was known as a multinational state where they lived (Germans, Hungarians, Czechs, Austrians, Croats, Poles, etc,). The capital was the city of Vienna.
When was the Holy Alliance given?
The Holy Alliance began in 1815 after the French Revolution. One of the main drivers was Pope Pius VII, playing an important role in the formation of the alliance. The Vatican, being the seat of the Catholic Church of the religious order, had a determining role in the European politics of the time. Being Pope Pius VII the most important and influential spiritual and political leader in Europe.
Due to the commotion of the French revolution and the danger that liberal movements represented for monarchical countries. The need to create the so-called Holy Alliance that defends the absolutist interests of the monarchy is born. Because the goal was maintain political and social orderApart from persevering the monarchical power, Pope Pius VII together with the leaders of Austria, Prussia and Russia promote this agreement that aligns the interests of these governments.
For this reason, although the Vatican and the Holy Alliance do not have a direct relationship, through Pope Pius VII there is a connection of interests and as the spiritual leader of Christianity he was a determining pillar for the formation of the Alliance.
The Holy Alliance begins to lose its influence. Gradually throughout the 19th century revolutionary ideas in Europe causes significant changes in the political structure of the continent. Also the formation of the Three Emperors in 1873 together with the growing influence of nationalist movements, were one of the contributions that diminished the importance of the Holy Alliance.
What are the consequences left by the Holy Alliance?
The Holy Alliance caused some consequences in Europe, such as the strengthening of the monarchies. The main idea was that the monarchy was still the preferred form of government and the purpose of the alliance was compromise for protect monarchical status throughout Europe. As a result, the monarchies were strengthened, while the liberal movements that were on the rise after the French Revolution were neutralized along with the nationalists.
Another of the consequences after the Holy Alliance was the restoration of order and stability after the Napoleonic wars. After the war, Europe is left in a state of chaos, something that disadvantages the hegemonic forces of the moment, the monarchs. Meanwhile, the Alliance then worked to restore order and stability to avoid possible wars.
One of the consequences of the Holy Alliance was the development of alliances and coalitions. Initially, only three countries were part of it, being Austria, Prussia and Russia who were the creators initially. Over the years, Great Britain and France would join to strengthen the fight against the liberal and nationalist movements.