What is the Tragic Ten? – Beginning, end and consequences of the Tragic Ten
The Tragic Ten It was an episode of political instability and violence that occurred in Mexico in February 1913, in which a group of soldiers rebelled against the democratic and constitutional government of Francisco I. Madero. The rebellion and the coup that accompanied it had important political, social and cultural consequences in the country, and contributed to the prolongation of the political and economic crisis that had begun at the end of the 19th century. Next, we will talk more in depth about this event and its history.
What is meant by tragic ten?
It refers to a type of violent event occurred in Mexico City from February 9 to 19, 1913, during which a group of conspirators tried to overthrow the constitutional president Francisco I. Madero and his vice president José María Pino Suárez. The conspirators, led by General Victoriano Huerta, managed to capture and assassinate Madero and Pino Suárez on February 22, 1913, ending the so-called Mexican Revolution and bringing Huerta to power.
During the uprising that gave rise to the Tragic Ten, Manuel Mondragón tried to contain the military insurrection and preserve the constitutional government. However, his performance proved insufficient to stop the rebellion. He also had an active participation in the negotiations with the rebels, in an attempt to avoid violence and restore constitutional order. However, these negotiations failed and the uprising was successful, which led to the fall and assassination of Madero, as well as the seizure of power by Victoriano Huerta.
The Tragic Ten is considered a crucial moment in the history of Mexico and marked the beginning of a period of political instability and violence in the country that would last several years.
When did the tragic decade begin?
Started on February 9, 1913 in Mexico City. During that day, a group of conspirators led by General Félix Díaz (the nephew of former President Porfirio Díaz), and General Bernardo Reyes, rose up against the government of President Francisco I. Madero. The uprising was carried out under the pretext of protesting against the 1910 presidential elections, which had led Madero to power, and which the rebels used fraudulently.
What was it that caused the tragic ten?
During the Tragic Ten, the conspirators used a combination of military force and political cartelage to try to overthrow President Francisco I. Madero and his Vice President José María Pino Suárez. The rebels had the support of some sectors of the army, the police, conservative groups and the United States embassy in the Republic of Mexico. They used violence to seize control of Mexico City, besieging the National Palace and other government buildings.
In addition, they spread propaganda in the press and on the street, accusing Madero of being a illegitimate and weak president that had led the country to a situation of chaos and disorder. Those who organized it were the conspirators, who also took advantage of the lack of popular support for Madero and the dissatisfaction of some sectors of society to try to win followers to his cause.
It had a profound impact on the history of Mexico and on the political life of the country. The aggressiveness and instability that characterized this period marked the beginning of a cycle of violence and conflict that lasted for several decades. After the uprising, the rebels managed to capture and assassinate President Francisco I. Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez, which meant the end of constitutional and democratic government Madero. General Victoriano Huerta, who led the uprising and coup that followed Madero’s death, became the new president of Mexico.
Huerta’s government it was very unpopular and it faced strong opposition from different political and social groups, which carried out a series of armed uprisings against it. This situation of instability and violence lasted until the fall of the Huerta regime in 1914, which began a new stage in the history of Mexico.
How long did the tragic decade last?
It lasted ten days, hence its name. As already mentioned, the Tragic Ten was a ten-day episode of political imbalance and conflicts in Mexico, which took place from February 9 to 19, 1913. During that time, a group of soldiers and politicians rose up against the government. Constitutional Constitution of Francisco I. Madero, which led to his fall and assassination, and the beginning of a period of political instability and aggressiveness in the country. Despite the fact that the Tragic Decena lasted only ten days, its political, social and cultural consequences lasted for several years and marked the beginning of a turbulent period in the history of Mexico.
When did the tragic ten end?
They began on February 9, 1913, and ended on February 19th of that same year. Although the uprising lasted for ten days, the capture and assassination of Madero and Pino Suárez occurred after the Tragic Ten, on February 22, 1913. After Madero’s death, Huerta and his government obtained the presidency of Mexico by self-proclaimed, and he remained in power until July 1914, when he was overthrown by a coalition of revolutionary forces.
What were the consequences of the tragic ten?
It had important political, social and cultural consequences in Mexico. Now they present some of the most relevant:
- Coup d’état and authoritarianism: The Tragic Ten was a coup that overthrew the democratic and constitutional cabinet of Francisco I. Madero. Victoriano Huerta’s mandate, which was established after the uprising, was authoritarian and repressive, and gave rise to a situation of violence and conflict that lasted for several years.
- Continuity of the Porfiriato: The Tragic Ten occurred in a context of crisis and social discontent over the policies of the Madero leadership, which sought to modernize and democratize the country. However, the uprising and the government of Huerta meant the continuation of many of the authoritarian practices of the Porfiriato, the political regime that had ruled Mexico for three decades before the Revolution.
- Start of the Mexican Revolution: The uprising and the repression of the Huerta government gave rise to a strong opposition from different social and political sectors, which united against his government and the beginning of the Mexican Revolution. This movement meant a profound transformation of Mexican society and politics, and laid the foundations for the construction of contemporary Mexico.
- Cultural and artistic impact: The Tragic Decena had an impact on Mexican culture and art, and gave way to the production of literary, musical, theatrical and film works that reflected the political and social situation of the country at that time. In addition, the death of Francisco I. Madero and José María Pino Suárez became a recurring theme in Mexican art and literature for decades to come.
What is the relationship between the tragic ten and stabilizing development?
They are two different historical processes separated by several decades. However, it is possible establish an indirect relationship between the two, since Stabilizing Development was an economic and social policy promoted by the Mexican government in the year 1950, with the aim of modernizing and stabilizing the country’s economy. One of the causes that gave rise to Stabilizing Development was the political and economic instability that Mexico had experienced during the previous ten years, including the Mexican Revolution and its consequences.
Political and economic instability were factors that discouraged investment and the growth of wealth, which motivated the adoption of stabilizing policies. On the other hand, the Tragic Ten was an episode of weakness and violence that occurred in Mexico in 1913, in a context of struggle for power. This situation of political instability had negative economic and social consequences for the country, and contributed to the prolongation of the crisis that had begun at the end of the 19th century.
In summary, although there is no direct relationship between the Tragic Ten and Stabilizing Developmentthe political and economic instability that characterized the period after the uprising had long-term consequences on the Mexican economy and society, and motivated the adoption of harmonizing policies such as Stabilizing Development.
In conclusion, the Tragic Ten was a key event in the history of Mexico, which had profound political, social and cultural consequences in the country. The uprising and coup that took place in February 1913 marked the end of the democratic and constitutional government of Francisco I. Madero and the beginning of a period of political instability and violence that deepened for several years.
In addition, the Tragic Ten contributed to the prolongation of the political and economic crisis that had affected Mexico for decades, and which is the beginning of the bases for the construction of contemporary Mexico. The uprising and repression by the Huerta government also gave rise to opposition and the start of the Mexican Revolution, which would transform society and politics.