22 April 2023

What is the Treaty of the Pyrenees? – Discover the characteristics of the Treaty of the Pyrenees

By Donald

The Treaty of the Pyrenees represents one of several peace agreements signed between Spain and France. Well, they fought frequently due to the proximity between the two countries and their military power. So, in this article, it is explained what is the Treaty of the Pyrenees and the date it was signed. In the same way, the reason for the affront and the agreements stipulated in said document that are currently in force are reported.

What is the Treaty of the Pyrenees?

The countries of Europe clashed on many occasions before the World Wars, as the empires sought to expand their territory. Similarly, there were frequent conflicts over religious issues and there were also problems over the succession of crowns in the monarchy of certain territories. This resulted in constant confrontations and several peace treaties that ended the wars.

In this sense, the Treaty of the Pyrenees is one of the most important documents in the European peace agreements. Is about a set of items Created in 1659 on the famous Isla de los Faisanes (the French-Spanish border). It is an international-type treaty that sought to give a friendly end to the Thirty Years’ War, one of the strongest conflicts between the powers or empires of Europe.

The Treaty of the Pyrenees was signed in the Pheasant Island because it involved France and Spain, the other countries agreed to end the war in advance. However, the rivalry between the French and the Spanish was very strong due to disputed lands and the line of family succession.

France participated in the Thirty Years’ War because Spain was gaining a lot of land, as they defeated the Dutch and invaded the Electorate of Traviérs. In response, the French invaded the Duchy of Lorraine and began to support the Catalans in their uprising. So they exerted a resistance in the policy that the Spanish Empire was trying to carry out.

Causes and consequences of the Treaty of the Pyrenees

The Thirty Years’ War came to an end when the peace of westphalia however, France and Spain were still in conflict. The reason for this is that the French were left with Lorraine and Alsace, therefore, the so-called Spanish road was closed. This route communicated the possessions in Italy with Flanders or the Spanish Netherlands.

Thus, France and Spain were at war for another 10 years, until the French and English allied to defeat the Spanish troops. This led to the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees the following year on the Isla de los Faisanes. Luis de Haro went there as the emissary of Felipe IV of Spain, while Cardinal Mazzarino represented Louis XIV.

As a consequence of the agreement, the confrontation between the two countries ended and a division of several territories was arranged. In this sense, on the southern border it was agreed that France would annex the counties of Roussillon, Vallespir and Conflent. In addition, he took a good slice of sardinia, since they were close to the Pyrenees and the troops occupied when they supported Catalonia. Despite winning those towns, they had to withdraw their ranks from the towns known as Castellón de Ampurias, Cadaqués, Las Rosas and Puigcerdá.

Spain obtained the return of the Franco de Charlois County, as well as Italian lands such as Mortara, Cassano d’Adda, Vigevano and Valenza. In turn, he had to deliver to the Duchy of Savoy (Italy)) the city of Verceli. Duke Carlos IV, who was a friend of the Spanish crown, favored the return of the Duchy of Lorraine.

One of the most important points of the Treaty of the Pyrenees was the wedding of King Louis XIV of France. Well, as a consequence of the pact, Felipe IV of Spain gave his daughter Maria Theresa of Austria. However, the condition of paying half a million gold escudos was also imposed, so that he renounced his rights of succession to the Spanish throne.

The economic compensation was not paid, therefore, it was one of the causes that led Louis XIV to initiate the return war. From this moment on, the royal houses of France and Spain are related. So, after the war of the Spanish succession, a person with the lineage of both sides sat on the Hispanic throne.

In this sense, with the Treaty of Utrecht in 1715 Felipe V was recognized as the new king of Spain. This character was grandson of Louis XIV and great-grandson of Philip IV. In addition, with him the reign of the house of Austria in Spain ends and the line of the Bourbons begins.

Another consequence of the Treaty of the Pyrenees was that France was left with 33 towns in the north of Sardinia, thus dividing Catalonia. In the same way, among the agreements was the pardon or real pardon of several rebellious people. These characters were the leaders of the uprising of Cataloniawhich received all their goods and assets.

In what year was the Treaty of the Pyrenees signed?

The Treaty of the Pyrenees ended the affront between the French and the Spanish after the Thirty Years’ War. This peace agreement was reached with the date of November 7, 1659. Wherein the Cardinal Mazarin and Luis de Haro They stamped their signature on the document. These were the envoys of both kings to negotiate the agreements.

However, the talks were extended due to some disagreements regarding certain territories. In these new talks, Cardinal Mazarino did not participate, since there were better relations between those involved. Thus, by the year 1960 the Treaty of Liliviainto which Sardinia was divided.

What is the validity of the Treaty of the Pyrenees?

The Treaty of the Pyrenees involved major agreements between France and Spain, however, many of them They are not valid on the current date. The reason for this was that in later years the two countries clashed again in other conflicts. The first of these was the return war for the dowry of Maria Teresa of Austria.

Later, in the War of Succession, Spain was stripped of a large part of its empire. For example, he lost the Netherlands, the territories in Italy and even Gibraltar at the hands of France. So, several of the places distributed in these documents went to other countries.

On the part of France, it should be noted that this treaty is in force in the towns of Dun, Stenay and Clermont-en-Argonne. These are cities that the Gauls occupied during this conflict, retained them in the pact and continue to belong to France today.

Likewise, it should be highlighted towns of sardinia, which the French still hold. The Isla de los Faisanes, the place where the signing took place, is now shared between both countries.

Countries involved in the Treaty of the Pyrenees

The Thirty Years’ War brought together all the European powers of the date, however, not all of them participated in the Treaty of the Pyrenees. In this sense, these agreements were created to stop the existing conflict between France and Spain. However, other territories were affected by the distribution of land, for example, the Flanders or Spanish Netherlands (Holland, Luxembourg and Belgium). Savoy, which is now Italy, was also present, as well as the province of Catalonia.