27 April 2023

What is ultraism? – Discover the characteristics of ultraism

By Donald

Literature has witnessed different movements and currents throughout history, each with specific characteristics and objectives. One of the most prominent literary movements of the 20th century It was the Vanguard, which emerged as a response to previous literary movements and sought to renew the way of writing literature through experimentation and breaking with established norms.

Within the Vanguard you can find different literary movements that stood out for their interest in innovation and originality, among them ultraism is found. In this article we invite you to discover the characteristics of it, one of the most important literary movements of the 20th century. Through this exploration, you will be able to learn about the key aspects that define this literary movement, how it arose and its impact on literature.

Definition and concept of ultraism

Ultraism is a literary movement that arose in Spain at the beginning of the 20th century, within the context of avant-garde. He was characterized by his interest in innovation and experimentation with form and language, as well as his rejection of traditional literary styles.

The ultraists sought to break with conventional poetic forms and develop a more abstract and free poetryin which the expression of emotions and feelings through image and metaphor was privileged.

What is the origin of ultraism?

The origin of ultraism is closely related to futurism, an Italian literary movement that was characterized by its interest in speed, technology and modernity. The ultraístas took some of the ideas of Futurism as a reference and adapted them to their cultural and social context, thus creating their own original poetics.

He first ultraist manifesto It was published in 1918 by the Spanish writer Guillermo de Torre, who became one of the main exponents of the movement. Since then, ultraism has spread rapidly to other countries and has become an important literary current in the field of poetry and its sonnets.

ultraism arose at a time crises in literaturein which poets felt that traditional poetic forms were no longer capable of expressing the complexity and speed of modern life.

To solve this ‘problem’, the ultraist poets focused on the formal experimentation and exploring new forms of poetic language.

What are the characteristics of ultraism?

The characteristics of Ultraism are diverse and complexbut we can highlight some of the most representative of the literary movement:

  • Innovation: He sought to break with conventional poetic forms and create a poetic more free and original.

  • Experimentation: The ultraists were interested in the experimentation with language, syntax and poetic images.

  • Abstraction: It was characterized by the creation of abstract poetic images, often related to modernity and technology.

  • Metaphor: The metaphor was a fundamental poetic resource in ultraism, allowing the expression of emotions and feelings in a more free and suggestive way.

  • Avant-garde: Ultraism was considered an avant-garde current, which sought renew and revolutionize the poetic language of his time.

  • Internationalism: Ultraism quickly spread to other countries, such as Argentina and Uruguay, where related literary groups were created.

  • Rejection of the sentimental: The ultraístas rejected sentimental and romantic poetry, and opted for a colder poetryintellectual and depersonalized.

  • Brevity: Brevity was an important characteristic in ultraist poetry, which sought conciseness and expressive economy.

  • Use of typography: Ultraism experimented with the typographic arrangement of the poems, using letters of different sizescolors and shapes to create amazing visual effects.

  • Rejection to the rhyme: The ultraístas rejected the traditional rhyme in poetry, opting for the use of freer and riskier rhythms and sounds.

  • Rhythm and musicality: Ultraism paid attention to the musicality and rhythm of poetry, creating poems that had a nice and harmonious sound.

  • Influence of cubism: Ultraism was influenced for him cubism art movementwhich was characterized by the representation of objects and shapes in a geometric and abstract way.

  • Mechanization and modernity: Ultraism was interested in mechanization and modernity, and used the image of machine as a metaphor for modern life and technology.

  • The author as creator: Ultraism considered the author as an artisan who builds his work consciously and deliberately, breaking with conception Romantic inspired and divine artist.

  • Rejection of the literary: The ultraists rejected traditional literature, considering that it had become a minor artand opted for a poetry closer to visual arts and experimentation.

What authors talk about ultraism?

Several authors have spoken about ultraism, either as active participants in the movement or as literary critics who have analyzed its importance and repercussion in literature. Here we present some of the most relevant authors who have spoken about ultraism:

William of Torre was considered one of the founders of ultraism, Guillermo de Torre was one of the main theorists of the movement and wrote various essays in which he analyzed the characteristics and objectives of Ultraism.

Jorge Luis Borges He was not an active ultraist, but he had a close relationship with the movement, writing several essays in which he referred to the importance of the movement in literature.

Vicente Huidobro a Chilean poet who actively participated in Spanish ultraismand that he wrote several poems that are considered representative of the movement.

Ramon Gomez de la Serna Spanish writer who was interested in ultraism and who came to be considered one of the main exponents of the movement in Spain.

Rafael Barradas Uruguayan painter and poet who joined Spanish ultraism, and who participated in several exhibitions and publications ultraists.

Finally, Gerardo DiegoSpanish poet who was part of the ultraísta group in Madrid and who wrote several poems that are considered representative of the movement.